We examine how firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance affects CEO compensation structure. Traditional agency theory suggests that CEOs engage in CSR for their own interests at the expense of shareholders. A competing argument is that CEOs consider firms' social performance as a business strategy to increase firm value and align their interests with those of shareholders. Our results support the latter prediction. We find that a firm's social performance is negatively associated with the proportion of cash-based compensation, while it is positively associated with the proportion of equity-based compensation. These results are robust to the degree of corporate governance, and they are more pronounced for firms with high levels of inside director ownership and long director tenure. Overall, our findings highlight the positive impact of CSR performance on CEO compensation packages, implying that CEOs' fiduciary behavior of engaging in CSR leads to mitigating agency problems and maximizing firm value.