Many clinicians and researchers have articulated the importance and applicability of patient preferred live music (PPLM) as a receptive music therapy intervention for adult medical patients. While PPLM delivered by a music therapist is often considered music therapy and not music medicine, questions concerning its operational definition, application, and functionality remain. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the existing research concerning PPLM as an intervention for adult medical patients by conducting a systematic review of the literature base to determine implications for clinical practice and future research. We performed a computer-based systematic review and also conducted hand searches of selected music therapy and creative arts journals. We found that numerous authors recommended PPLM as a preferred and effective intervention for adult medical patients. Results across eight studies meeting inclusion criteria were positive and supported PPLM as an applicable intervention for affective states, pain, nausea, and physiological measures for adult cancer and transplant patients when delivered by qualified music therapists. As medical patients may initially prefer receptive interventions, PPLM may be an ideal method to develop rapport and therapeutic alliance before introducing and integrating more active interventions. The importance of therapist musicality and diverse repertoire are discussed.