Food neophobia (FN) is described as the rejection to eat unknown foods. Because only little is known about the role of FN in adolescence the aim of this study was to examine potential determinants of FN and associations with dietary habits of DONALD study participants. FN was measured with Pliner's and Hobden's Food Neophobia Scale (FN Score (FNS): range 10–70) in 166 10-18-year-old adolescents. Participants' age, sex, body weight status and duration of breast-feeding as well as parents' FN and educational status were considered as determinants. Energy intake, distribution of macronutrients and two variety scores were calculated from 3-day weighed dietary records. Multivariable general linear models were performed for data analyses. Boys and girls did not differ in their FNS (median (Min–Max): boys 31 (10–58), girls 32 (14–59)). Increasing age (p = 0.010) and duration of total breast-feeding (p = 0.006) were associated with decreasing FNS in girls only. FN was further positively associated with parental FN in the total sample (p = 0.004). FN was negatively associated with protein intake in the total sample (p = 0.017). The overall low level of FN in the DONALD study can be ascribed to the low level of FN in adolescence in general. Congruently with other studies, age and breast-feeding duration were identified as determinants of girls' FN and parental FN was identified as determinant of FN in the total sample. Further, our results indicate that FN leads to reduced protein intakes. Dietary variety was not strongly affected, possibly because of a broad variety of food supply in Germany.